Rescuing a drowning man and a drowning man on land.
I resemble the most frequently used method of hauling a drowning person to the shore:
1. we swim to the drowning man from behind
2. we grab his clothes or hair with one hand and lift his head above the surface of the water; then we change the grip to the one supporting the neck from the back (thumb behind one ear, fingers behind the other ear)
3. we tow a drowning man with his mouth and nose above the water, swimming on your back next to him or "under him", mainly using the legs and the other hand.
It is a method available to all of us who can swim on average, sufficient to take the drowning person ashore or into a boat. I will omit the methods of professional rescuers here, based, among others. on the ability to swim for a long time under water.
Diagram of the basic steps to rescue a drowned man:
1 nasal cleansing, the mouth and throat of seaweed, silt etc., as well as removing any dentures – I mentioned this at the beginning, talking about choking
2 removing water from the trachea and bronchi is most effective as follows:
• kneel on one knee
• pull the drowned man onto the other knee, laying it on your stomach and leaving your head close to the ground (the mouth is much lower than the bronchi, which will ensure the drainage of water by the force of gravity)
• do pressure with both hands (hard and rhythmically several times) chest on both sides, "Squeezing" water out of the respiratory tract
Caution! Treatments 1+2 should be done decisively and reasonably quickly, for only after them will we begin
1. Laying the rescued person on his back on solid ground (gravel, grass, bottom of the boat, platform, etc.)
2. Clothes open wide or clothes torn off the chest, to judge, whether:
• is breathing or not breathing? (visible / not! chest movements, mainly rib arches)
• his heart beats or not? (put the ear on the left side of the sternum, in its lower part – heartbeat is clearly audible!)
If we find, that the would-be drowned man is breathing and his heart is working – just after pumping out the water – we have nothing else to do! Full success! After a while, we'll be able to drink something… warm, together with the rescued one. Conversely, if we were less fortunate, it means:
1. drowned man is not breathing, but his heart is working (make sure 2-3 times) – we start mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration immediately
2. the drowned man is not breathing and the heart is not working – immediate mouth-to-mouth breathing with simultaneous heart massage.
3. drowned man is breathing, and the heart is not working – we only do heart massage (such a situation is extremely rare(!), as a result of the so-called. thermal shock, from dropping into very cold water).
• we kneel on both knees at the side of the rescued person, at shoulder height
• slightly tilt the victim's head back, we pinch her nose with the fingers of one hand and blow as much air as possible into her open mouth. We do it ok. 15-18 times per minute, i.e.. co 3-4 seconds! We check out of the corner of our eye, that the drowned person's chest widens when air is pushed in – if so, it means, that we are working effectively. If you don't see chest movement, it means, that… the victim's tongue collapsed and blocked the entrance to the larynx. Then the head of the rescued should be turned to the side by approx. 70-80°, in the opposite direction from us, lean a little deeper and resume blowing in that position. It will certainly be effective. The air we exhale contains several percent of oxygen and carbon dioxide , which stimulates the respiratory center in the brain, i.e.. it works favorably.
External heart massage:
1. we kneel as well as for mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration
2. We place both our hands on the lower part of the victim's sternum, one on top of the other at right angles (on the cross)
3. we oppress, rhythmically – every second – so hard, that the sternum would bend 4-5 cm! Only this amplitude deflection of the sternum effectively presses the heart against the spine, which causes blood to circulate in the main artery (aorcie) and arteries of the brain, hearts, spit, liver, kidneys etc..
The simultaneous use of breathing and massage is necessary in the most difficult situation, that is then, when the drowned man is not breathing and his heart is not beating.
The combination of both treatments is this, that after every three compressions of the sternum, we blow deep air once. This is due to the described rhythms of artificial respiration and massage, superimposed on each other. This corresponds to the normal rhythm of the heart and breathing of a healthy person.
We revive calmly, persistently and decisively… until the moment, when the rescued catches his breath, and we will hear our heart beating again with our ear! So we have the real one, absolutely real chance to perform an almost miracle and revive a man doomed to death by… our ignorance, anxiety or inaction. Even broken ribs (it happens sometimes even to skilled rescuers) it doesn't matter at the cost of the life saved!
How long should recovery be carried out? There is no strict time limit, but it is believed, that if after 20-30 minutes do not come back or breath, or the heart rate – we have to accept failure, keeping the conviction, that we did everything, what we could do!